Glossary

Agent (or Handler): One who trains or exhibits a dog for a fee.

Agility Excellent (AX): A suffix title conferred on dogs for qualifying the requisite number of times in the Agility Excellent class at AKC agility trials.

Agility Trials: An organized competition at which dogs negotiate a series of obstacles and jumps in three classes of increasing difficulty. Suffix titles are earned at each level (Novice, Open, and Excellent) by qualifying a predetermined number of times.

All-Breed Show Conformation show where all AKC-recognized breeds may be exhibited.

Almond Eyes:An elongated eye shape, rather than rounded.

Alpha: Term used to describe the highest ranked or most dominant individual. Used of social animals: the alpha female of the wolf pack..

Alter: To castrate, neuter, fix or spay.

American-Bred Class: A regular class for all dogs (except champions) six months of age whelped in the USA as a result of a mating that took place within the USA.

American Kennel Club: An organization, established under the laws of the State of New York, whose goals are to adopt and enforce uniform rules regulating and governing purebred dogs events; to regulate the conduct of persons interested in exhibiting, running, breeding, registering, purchasing, and selling dogs; to detect, prevent, and punish frauds in connection therewith; to protect the interest of its members; to maintain and publish an official stud book and an official gazette; and generally to do everything to advance the study, breeding, exhibiting, running, and maintenance of purebred dogs.

Anal glands: Glands which secrete a pungent substance that is used by a dog to mark its territory. Located on each side of the anus. Periodic expressing may be needed on many dogs

Angulation: Angles created by bones meeting at their given joints. Photo shows rear angulation examples.

Artificial Insemination: The introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract by artificial means. Usually one of three ways, directly by surgery into the uterus, (TCI) Trans-cervical in which a rigid endoscope is used to locate the cervix and pass a catheter through it for intrauterine insemination about 20 inches, or a simple (AI) by collecting the dog and by a narrow tube releasing concentrated semen about 12 inches up into the female rottweiler.

Backyard breeder (Grower): A person who casually breeds purebred dogs with little or no regard to the breed standard, genetically linked defects or temperament.

Balance: When all the parts of the dog, moving or standing, produce a harmonious image.

Best in Show: Dog shows are a process of elimination, with one dog being named Best in Show at the end of the show. Only the Best of Breed winners advance to compete in the Group competitions. Each AKC-recognized breed falls into one of seven group classifications. The seven groups are Sporting, Hound, Working, Terrier, Toy, Non-Sporting and Herding. Four placements are awarded in each group, but only the first-place winner advances to the Best In Show competition.

Best of Breed: As deemed by the judge, the dog that comes closest to meeting the breed standard among the competing dogs of that breed.

Bitch: A female canine.

Bite: The relative position of the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. Bite positions include scissors, level, undershot, or overshot, depending on the breed.

Bloat: Gastric dilatation volvulus (also known as bloat or a twisted stomach) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. It is also commonly referred to as torsion and gastric torsion when the stomach is also twisted. The word bloat is often used as a general term to cover gas distension of the stomach with or without twisting. In dogs, gas accumulation in the stomach is usually associated with volvulus of the stomach, which prevents gas from escaping. Deep-chested breeds are especially at risk. Mortality rates in dogs range from 10 to 60 percent, even with treatment. With surgery, the mortality rate is 15 to 33 percent. Most common in deep-chested dogs and can rapidly lead to death if untreated.

Board: To feed, house, and care for a dog for a fee.

Breed: A domestic race of dogs (selected and maintained by man) with a common gene pool and characterized appearance and function.

Breed club: An organization comprised of dog fanciers dedicated to the promotion and improvement of a particular breed of dog.

Breeder: A person who breeds dogs with intregrity, always striving to better health and structure and consider themselves a steward of their breed. A (breeder) is at the opposite end of the spectrum from a (grower) or better known as a backyard breeder who breeds for puppy volume & money only with no regard for the breed qualities.

Breed rescue: An organization dedicated to finding good homes for unwanted or abandoned purebred dogs.

Breed Standard: The set of breed descriptions originally laid down by the various parent breed clubs and accepted officially by international bodies.

Brucellosis: A chronic disease caused by the bacterium Brucella canis and characterized by prolonged disorders of the genital tract, including infertility.

Canine Good CitizenĀ® (CGC): (CGC) program, established in 1989, is an American Kennel Club program to promote responsible dog ownership and to encourage the training of well-mannered dogs. A dog and handler team must take a short behavioral evaluation of less than half an hour; dogs who pass the evaluation earn the Canine Good Citizen certificate, which many people represent after the dog's name, abbreviating it as CGC; for example, "Fido, CGC". The evaluation consists of ten objectives. All items must be completed satisfactorily or the team fails. Test items include:
    1. Accepting a friendly stranger.
    1. Sitting politely for petting.
    1. Allowing basic grooming procedures.
    1. Walking on a loose lead.
    1. Walking through a crowd.
    1. Sitting and lying down on command and staying in place.
    1. Coming when called.
    1. Reacting appropriately to another dog.
    1. Reacting appropriately to distractions.
    1. Calmly enduring supervised separation from the owner.


CH: A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of defeating a specified number of dogs in specified competition at a series of AKC-licensed or -member dog shows.

Champion: A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of defeating a specified number of dogs in specified competition at a series of AKC-licensed or -member dog shows.

Close-Coupled: Comparatively short from the last rib to the commencement of the hindquarters; occasionally used to characterize a comparative shortness from withers to hipbones.

Colostrum: Newborns have very immature digestive systems, and colostrum delivers its nutrients in a very concentrated low-volume form. It has a mild laxative effect, encouraging the passing of the baby's first stool, which is called meconium. Colostrum is known to contain immune cells (as lymphocytes) and many antibodies Colostrum is crucial for newborn farm animals. They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the placenta before birth, so any antibodies that they need have to be ingested. This oral transfer of immunity can occur because the newborn's stomach is porous. This means that large proteins (such as antibodies) can pass through the stomach wall. The newborn animal must receive colostrum within 6 hours of being born for maximal transfer of antibodies to occur. The stomach wall remains somewhat open up to 24 hours of age, but transfer is more limited.

Companion Animal Recovery(sm) (CAR): A national database in which any companion animal with a form of positive identification, such as a microchip or tattoo, can be enrolled.

Companion Dog (CD): A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Novice classes at a specified number of AKC-licensed or -member obedience trials.

Companion Dog Excellent (CDX): A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Open classes at a specified number of AKC-licensed or -member obedience trials.

Conformation: The structure and arrangement of the dogs body in conformance with breed standards.

Covering Ground: The distance traveled by a dog with each stride as it gaits (or trots).

Cow-Hocked: Hocks turning in, accompanied by toeing out of rear feet.

Crabbing: The dog moves with its body at an angle to the line of travel. It is usually the result of obtuse bone alignment angles in the front assembly (creating a short stride) and more accute bone angles in the rear assembly (creating a longer stride). The short front stride is overtaken by the long rear stride at trotting so, the dog offsets its rear movement from the front to avoid the rear legs clashing with the front legs.Also called sidewinding.

Crate: Portable container used for shipping, transporting, or housing dogs. Also called cage or kennel.

Crossing Over: Unsound gaiting action that starts with twisting elbows and ends with crisscrossing and toeing out. Also called knitting and purling, and weaving.

Croup: The region of the pelvic girdle, formed by the sacrum and surrounding tissue.

Cryptorchid: The adult whose testicles are abnormally retained in the abdominal cavity. Bilateral cryptorchidism involves both sides; i.e., neither testicle has descended into the scrotum. Unilateral cryptorchidism (also called monorchid) involves one side only; i.e., one testicle is retained or hidden, and one is descended.

Cystitis: Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Dewclaw: An extra claw on the inside of the leg; a rudimentary fifth toe (or thumb-like), removed on most breeds.

DHLPP: Vaccine to immunize a dog against distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza and parvovirus.

Distemper: An infectious viral disease occurring in dogs, characterized by loss of appetite, a catarrhal discharge from the eyes and nose, vomiting, fever, lethargy, partial paralysis caused by destruction of myelinated nerve tissue, and sometimes death. Also called canine distemper.

DNA: A unique genetic makeup. DNA testing is done to prove the actual parentage and/or identity of an animal.

DNA Test: A test to determine identity and/or verify parentage. The process begins with a sample of a dogs DNA collected by the use of a buccal swab, as this reduces the possibility of contamination. It is then processed and the dogs record proves his unique DNA profile. Results must be processed by an AKC-approved facility to be accepted by AKC.

Dock: is the removal of a portion of an animal's tail. Tail docking occurs in one of two ways. The first involves constricting the blood supply to the tail with a rubber ligature for a couple days until the tail falls off. The second involves the severance of the tail with surgical scissors or a scalpel. The tail is amputated at the dock.

Dog: A male canine or term used to refer generically to all canines, male or female.

Drive: A solid thrusting of the hindquarters, denoting sound locomotion. Rear feet should not lift and have strong, clean, forward propulsion with feet remaining close to the ground. Forward and back stepping and not up and down motion.

Drop Ear: The ear leather folds over; not erect or prick ears.; Ear in which the leather is folded over to some degree.

Eclampsia: (hypocalcemia or puerperal tetany) is an emergency medical condition associated with a life-threatening drop in blood calcium levels that occurs in nursing mothers. Eclampsia occurs most commonly when the puppies are one to five weeks of age and the mother is producing the most milk. Eclampsia is not due to an overall lack of calcium; it merely indicates that the nursing female cannot mobilize sufficient supplies of stored calcium quickly enough to meet her metabolic needs. Females that are particularly good mothers, especially attentive to their puppies, seem to be more likely to develop eclampsia. Signs of eclampsia include tremors, weakness and a form of paralysis called puerperal tetany characterized by stiff limbs and an inability to stand or walk. Eclampsia is considered an immediate emergency and medical attention should be sought.

Elbows Out: Turning out or off from the body; not held close, which is in-correct for the rottweiler. A pocket is created between the elbow and rib cage. Elbow should fit tight to dogs side.

Enteritis: Inflammation of the intestinal tract, especially of the small intestine.

Entropion: A complex genetic condition that results in the turning in of the upper or lower eyelid, potentially resulting in corneal ulceration.

Estrus: The periodic state of sexual excitement in the female of most mammals, excluding humans, that immediately precedes ovulation and during which the female is most receptive to mating; heat.

Even Bite (or level bite): Meeting of upper and lower incisors with no overlap. Also called level bite.

Ewe Neck: A neck in which the topline is concave rather than convex.

Flat-Sided (or Slab-Sided): Ribs insufficiently rounded as they approach the sternum or breastbone.

Flews: Upper lip pendulous, particularly at their inner corners.

Fresh Extended (Chilled) Semen: Semen that is extracted and extended by a licensed veterinarian. The semen must be extracted from a dog within the USA and shipped to a point within the USA only. This type of semen must be used within a specified period of time.

Frozen Semen: Semen that is extracted, frozen, and stored for future use by a licensed veterinarian. The collection must be reported to the AKC, and the collector/storer must be an AKC-approved facility and in compliance with AKC record keeping practices.

Gait: The pattern of footsteps at various rates of speed, each pattern distinguished by a particular rhythm and footfall.

Gay Tail: A tail carried above the horizontal level of the back.

Genotype: The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.

Gestation Period: The time between mating and birth (it averages 63 days).

Get: Offspring.

Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums, characterized by redness and swelling.

Groups: The breeds as grouped into seven divisions by the AKC to facilitate judging. The seven groups are: sporting, hound, working, toy, terrier, non-sporting, and herding.

Guard Hairs: The longer, smoother, stiffer hairs that grow through and normally conceal the undercoat.

Hackles: Hairs on neck and back raised involuntarily in fright or anger.

Hackney Action: A high lifting of the front feet accompanied by flexing of the wrist like that of a Hackney horse.

Handler: One who trains or exhibits an animal, such as a dog.

Hare Foot: Foot on which the two center digits are appreciably longer than the outside and inside toes of the foot, and the arching of the toes is less marked, making the foot appear longer overall.

Heartworm: A filarial worm (Dirofilaria immitis) transmitted by mosquitoes and parasitic in the heart and associated blood vessels of dogs and other canids.

Heat: (1) Seasonal period of the female. Estrus, in season. (2) Performance: A competitive running of dogs.

Heel: Command to a dog to keep close beside its handler.

Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, caused by infectious or toxic agents and characterized by jaundice, fever, liver enlargement, and abdominal pain.

Hip Dysplasia: Abnormal formation of the hip joint.

Hock: The collection of bones of the hind leg forming the joint between the second thigh and the metatarsus; the dog's true heel.The pointed joint in the middle of the rear leg.

Hocking Out: Spread hocks.

Hocks Well Let Down: Hock joints close to the ground.

HomeAgain: Brand name for microchips sold by Schering Plough to veterinarians for permanent identification of companion animals.

Homeopathic: A system of veterinary practice that treats a disease by the administration of very minute doses of a remedy that in a healthy animal would produce the symptoms of the disease that is being treated.

Honorable Scars: Scars from injuries suffered as a result of work.

Immune Response: The body's reaction to infection.

Immunization: To produce immunity in, as by inoculation.

Imported Semen: Frozen semen that is imported from another country.

In Whelp: Pregnant.The photo shows a bitch about 8.5 weeks pregnant. She is shaved to be able to use a hand-held doppler.

Inbreeding: The mating of two closely related dogs of the same breed.

Kennel Cough: Tracheobronchitis of dogs or cats.

Killed Virus Vaccine (KV): A vaccine containing dead viruses which cannot multiply when administered in an animal, but can stimulate an immune response to prevent future infection by the virus.

Knuckling Over: Faulty structure of wrist joint allowing it to flex forward under the weight of the standing dog.Layback: The angle of the shoulder blade as compared with the vertical plane viewed from the side.

Leptospirosis: An infectious disease of domestic animals, especially cattle, swine, and dogs, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira and characterized by jaundice and fever.

Level Bite: When the front teeth (incisors) of the upper and lower jaws meet exactly edge to edge. Also called pincer bite, equal bite, or even bite.

Lick Granuloma: A skin condition caused by prolonged licking at a specific area, in most cases, a leg or a paw.

Line Breeding: The practice of mating a dog to a member of an earlier generation of the dog's bloodline.

Litter: The puppy or puppies of one whelping.

Litter Registration: Recording a litter of puppies with a dog association.

Loaded Shoulders: Excessive development of the muscles associated with the shoulder blades.

Loin: The region of the body associated with the lumbar portions of the vertebrae column (behind the ribs and in front of the pelvic girdle).

Lower Thigh or Second Thigh: That part of the hindquarters from the stifle to the hock, corresponding to the human shin and calf. Lower thigh, including the tibia and fibula.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): A hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum in the female and the production of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testis in the male.

Lyme Borreliosis: More commonly known as

Lyme disease: an infectious arthritis caused by spirochete bacteria.

Mastitis: Inflammation of the breast or udder.

Maternal Immunity: A form of temporary immunity passed from a mother to her offspring while in the uterus and after birth in the colostrum and milk.

Microchip: A rice-sized device encoded with a unique and unalterable number. The chip is implanted just under the skin in the scruff of the neck and is read by a scanner.

Milk Teeth: The first, temporary teeth. Also called baby teeth.

Modified-Live Virus: A virus which has been modified to no longer produce a disease but still retain the ability to induce a protective immune response so that it can be used as a vaccine.

Monorchid: A dog that has one testicle retained or hidden in its abdominal cavity. See Cryptorchid

Move: To gait a dog in a pattern prescribed by the judge.

Moving Close: When the hocks turn in and pasterns drop straight to the ground and move parallel to one another, the dog is moving close in the rear.

Moving Straight: Term descriptive of balanced gaiting in which angle of inclination begins at the shoulder, or hip joint, and limbs remain relatively straight from these points to the pads of the feet, even as legs flex or extend in reaching or thrusting.

Neck Well Set-On: Good neckline, merging gradually with withers, forming a pleasing transition into topline.

Nesting Behavior: Behavior of a pregnant female who prepares a place to give birth and nurture young.

Neuter: To castrate or spay.

Obedience Trial: An event held under AKC rules at which a leg toward an obedience degree can be earned.

Occiput: Dorsal, posterior point of the skull.

Ophthalmic: Of or relating to the eye; ocular.

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA): Organization, established in 1966, that developed and maintains a registry of hip dysplasia in dogs. Dogs with OFA numbers are rated and certified free of canine hip dysplasia. This rating applies for the life of the dog. In order to have OFA on AKC records, a dog must have permanent ID.

Out At The Elbows: Elbows turning out from the body as opposed to being held close.

Out At The Shoulders: With shoulder blades loosely attached to the body, leaving the shoulders jutting out in relief and increasing the breadth of the front.

Outcrossing: The mating of unrelated individuals of the same breed.

Overreaching: Fault in the trot caused by more angulation and drive from behind than in front so that the rear feet are forced to step to one side of the forefeet to avoid interfering or clipping.

Overshot: The incisors of the upper jaw projecting beyond the incisors of the lower jaw, thus resulting in a space between the respective inner and outer surfaces.

Pace: A lateral gait that tends to promote a rolling motion of the body. The left foreleg and left hind leg advance in unison, then the right foreleg and right hind leg.

Pack: Multiple hounds cast at one time.

Padding: A compensating action to offset constant concussion when a straight front is subjected to overdrive from the rear; the front feet flip upward in a split-second delaying action to coordinate the stride of the forelegs with the longer stride from behind.

Paddling: A gaiting fault, so named for its similarity to the swing and dip of a canoeists paddle. Pinching in at the elbows and shoulder joints causes the front legs to swing forward on a stiff outward arc. Also called tied at the elbows.

Pads: Tough, shock-absorbing projections on the underside of the feet. Soles.

Parainfluenza: In canines, a disease characterized by fever, vomiting and diarrhea.

Parvovirus: A highly contagious febrile disease of canines that is caused by a parvovirus (genus Parvovirus), is spread especially by contact with infected feces, and is marked by loss of appetite, lethargy, vomiting, and sometimes bloody diarrhea often causing death. Also called parvo.

Pedigree: The written record of a dog's genealogy of three generations or more.

PennHIP: A method, established in 1993, of evaluating hip dysplasia in dogs by calculating hip laxity; within-breed ratings are provided, permitting breeders to select dogs with the best (smallest laxity) hips for breeding future generations.

Periodontal Disease: A disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth.

Phenotype: The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.

Pounding: Gaiting fault resultant of a dog's stride being shorter in the front than in the rear; forefeet strike the ground hard before the rear stride is expended.

Proestrus: The period immediately before estrus in most female mammals, characterized by development of the endometrium and ovarian follicles.

Professional Handler: A person who conditions, trains and exhibits dogs for a fee.

Professional Trainer: A person who trains hunting dogs and who handles dogs in field events.

Progesterone: A steroid hormone, C21H30O2, secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and by the placenta, that acts to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum, to maintain pregnancy, and to promote development of the mammary glands.

Puppy mills: Term used to describe a facility that breeds purebred dogs for profit with no regard for the breed standard, temperament, genetically linked defects, socialization or the dog's overall health and welfare.

Purebred: A dog whose sire and dam belong to the same breed and who are themselves of unmixed descent since recognition of the breed.

Put Down:To euthenize a dog.

Pyometra: An accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity.

Quick: The vein running through a dog's claw.

Rabies: An acute, infectious, often fatal viral disease of most warm-blooded animals, especially wolves, cats, and dogs, that attacks the central nervous system and is transmitted by the bite of infected animals.

Reach of Front: Length of forward stride taken by forelegs.

Rear Pastern: The metatarsus; the region of the hindquarters between the hock and the foot.

Recessive Gene: A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene.

Roach Back: A convex curvature of the back involving thoracic and lumbar regions.

Scissors Bite:A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors. It is the correct set of Rottweiler teeth.

Season: The cyclical period in which a female dog becomes interested in mating and capable of becoming pregnant.

Second Thigh: That part of the hindquarters from the stifle to the hock, corresponding to the human shin and calf. Lower thigh, including the tibia and fibula.

Selective Breeding: Intentional mating two dogs in order to achieve or eliminate a specific trait.

Senile Cataracts: Occurring in elderly animals, a lens opacity in the eye that does not interfere with vision.

Short Back (or Close coupled):Comparatively short from the last rib to the commencement of the hindquarters; occasionally used to characterize a comparative shortness from withers to hipbones.

Show Quality: A pedigreed dog meeting the official breed standard and thus able to compete in dog shows.

Sickle Hocked: Inability to straighten the hock joint on the back reach of the hind leg.

Silent Heat: An unnoticed heat period that can be due to little swelling of the vulva, little bleeding, no attraction of males or no behavior change.

Single Tracking: All footprints falling on a single line of travel. When a dog breaks into a trot, his body is supported by only two legs at a time, which move as alternating diagonal pairs. To achieve balance, his legs angle inward toward a center line beneath his body, and the greater the speed, the closer they come to tracking on a single line. The slower the speed, the wider apart the legs become from each other in width.

Sire: The male parent.

Slab-Sided: Flat ribs (the opposite of well sprung ribs) with too little spring from the spinal column.

Slew Feet: Feet turned out.

Soundness: The state of mental and physical health when all organs and faculties are complete and functioning normally, each in its rightful relation to the other.

Spay: To remove a bitch's reproduction ability surgically to prevent conception.

Splayfoot: A flat foot with toes spreading. Open foot, open-toed.

Spring of Ribs: Curvature of ribs for heart and lung capacity. The opposite of slab sided ribs.

Standing Heat: The point during which a female in heat will accept breeding and can become pregnant.

Steep: Used to denote obtuse angles of articulation. For example, a steep front describes a more upright shoulder placement than is preferred.

Sternum: A row of eight bones that form the floor of the chest.

Stifle: The joint of the dogs hind leg between the thigh and the second thigh at the level of the lower belly. The dog's knee.

Stop:The step up from muzzle to back skull; indentation between the eyes where the nasal bones and cranium meet.

Straight In Pastern: Little or no bend at the wrist.

Straight Shoulders: The shoulder blades rather straight up and down, as opposed to sloping or well laid back. In the photo, the angle of the shoulder blades are open/obtuse or straight up and down instead of laid back at the preferred 45 degree angle. Straight shoulders are undesirable in the rottweiler.

Straight-Hocked: Lacking appreciable angulation at the hock joints.

Stud Book:Monthly publication of the AKC. A listing of dogs that have sired or whelped a litter for the first time that has been registered with the AKC. With this information, a person can use Stud Book volumes to trace a dog's lineage and to produce pedigrees.

Stud Dog: A quality male dog used for breeding purposes.

Stud Fee: Payment made for the services of a stud dog.

Substance: Bone, size, heft and depth. In the photo, the same age rottweiler bitch on the right has more substance than the bitch on the left.

Tail-Set: How the base of the tail is set on the rump.

[gt]Tattoo: A method of on-dog identification. Usually, safely placed on the belly/inner thigh.

Teat: The nipple of an animal.

Tied At The Elbows (or Padding):A gaiting fault, so named for its similarity to the swing and dip of a canoeists paddle. Pinching in at the elbows and shoulder joints causes the front legs to swing forward on a stiff outward arc. Also called tied at the elbows.

Topline: The dog's outline from just behind the withers to the tail set. The rottweiler should be straight, firm and horizontal with the ground.

Tracking Dog (TD): A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Tracking Dog as a result of having passed an AKC-licensed or -member tracking test. The title may be combined with the UD (Utility Dog) title and shown as UDT.

Tuck-Up: Characterized by markedly shallower body depth at the loin. Small-waisted.

Twisting Hocks: A gaiting fault in which the hock joints twist both ways as they flex or bear weight. Also called rubber hocks.

Type: Sum of qualities that distinguish dogs of one breed (breed type) or dogs from one kennel (kennel type) from others.

Umbilical Hernia: A usually self-correcting hernia of the intestines in which protrusion occurs through the abdominal wall in the region of the navel.

Undershot:The front teeth (incisors) of the lower jaw overlapp or project beyond the front teeth of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed. This is an incorrect bite and a disqualification for the show rottweiler.

Unilateral Cryptorchid: The adult whose testicles are abnormally retained in the abdominal cavity. Bilateral cryptorchidism involves both sides; i.e., neither testicle has descended into the scrotum. Unilateral cryptorchidism (also called monorchid) involves one side only; i.e., one testicle is retained or hidden, and one is descended.

United Kennel Club (UKC): An official registry in the United States for purebred dogs.

Unsound: A dog incapable of performing the functions for which it was bred.

Utility Dog (UD): A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member obedience trials. This title may be combined with the TD or TDX title and shown as UDT or UDTX, respectively.

Well Let Down: Having short hocks; refers to short metatarsals. The photo shows an excellent example of well let down hocks on a rottweiler and correct, moderate angulation of the knee.

Wet: Neck and/or jowls w/loose or superfluous skin; with dewlap. Many times leading to extra slobber and odor.

Wheel Back: A marked arch of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

Whelp Date: The date of birth of a litter.

Whelping: The act of birthing puppies.

Wicket: Device used to measure the height of a dog at the withers.

Winter Nose (or Snow nose): Nose normally solid black, but acquires pink or liver colored streak in winter. Also called winter nose. This is in-correct for the rottweiler

Withers: Highest point of a dog's shoulders between the base of the neck and beginning of the back.

Working Group: Group of dogs used to pull carts, guard property, and for search and rescue.

Wry Mouth:Asymmetrical alignment of upper and lower jaws; cross bite.

Zygomatic Arch: A bony ridge extending posteriorly (and laterally) from beneath the eye orbit.